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The NSA is responsible for global monitoring, collection, and processing of information and data for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence SIGINT. The NSA is also tasked with the protection of U. Since then, it has become the largest of the U. SCS collection tactics allegedly encompass "close surveillance, burglary, wiretapping, [and] breaking and entering". The NSA is entrusted with providing assistance to, and the coordination of, SIGINT elements for other government organizations - which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities on their own.
The NSA's actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders and the agency's participation in economic espionage. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens.
The documents also revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through " boomerang routing ".
The origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, , three weeks after the U. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I. A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section which was also known as the Cipher Bureau. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times. On July 5, , Herbert O.
Yardley was assigned to head the unit. At that point, the unit consisted of Yardley and two civilian clerks. It absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July After the disbandment of the U. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in , the U. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization. Its true mission, however, was to break the communications chiefly diplomatic of other nations.
Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference , during which it aided American negotiators considerably by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.
Despite the Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in by U. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson , who defended his decision by stating, "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail". Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Truman ordered a panel to investigate how AFSA had failed to achieve its goals. The results of the investigation led to improvements and its redesignation as the National Security Agency. Due to its ultra-secrecy the U.
In the s, the NSA played a key role in expanding U. The NSA mounted a major effort to secure tactical communications among U. However a variety of technical and operational problems limited their use, allowing the North Vietnamese to exploit and intercept U.
In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal , a congressional hearing in led by Sen. Kennedy to assassinate Fidel Castro. This was designed to limit the practice of mass surveillance in the United States. In , the NSA intercepted the communications of the Libyan government during the immediate aftermath of the Berlin discotheque bombing. NSA's infrastructure deteriorated in the s as defense budget cuts resulted in maintenance deferrals.
On January 24, , NSA headquarters suffered a total network outage for three days caused by an overloaded network. Incoming traffic was successfully stored on agency servers, but it could not be directed and processed.
Director Michael Hayden called the outage a "wake-up call" for the need to invest in the agency's infrastructure. Solinas' presentation on efficient Elliptic Curve Cryptography algorithms at Crypto After the terrorist attacks of 11 September , the NSA believed that it had public support for a dramatic expansion of its surveillance activities.
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks , the NSA created new IT systems to deal with the flood of information from new technologies like the Internet and cellphones. ThinThread contained advanced data mining capabilities. It also had a "privacy mechanism"; surveillance was stored encrypted; decryption required a warrant. The research done under this program may have contributed to the technology used in later systems.
Some NSA whistleblowers complained internally about major problems surrounding Trailblazer. The project was cancelled in early Turbulence started in It was developed in small, inexpensive "test" pieces, rather than one grand plan like Trailblazer. It also included offensive cyber-warfare capabilities, like injecting malware into remote computers.
Congress criticized Turbulence in for having similar bureaucratic problems as Trailblazer. The massive extent of the NSA's spying, both foreign and domestic, was revealed to the public in a series of detailed disclosures of internal NSA documents beginning in June NSA's eavesdropping mission includes radio broadcasting, both from various organizations and individuals, the Internet, telephone calls, and other intercepted forms of communication. Its secure communications mission includes military, diplomatic, and all other sensitive, confidential or secret government communications.
According to a article in The Washington Post , "[e]very day, collection systems at the National Security Agency intercept and store 1. The NSA sorts a fraction of those into 70 separate databases. In the United States, at least since ,  there has been legal controversy over what signal intelligence can be used for and how much freedom the National Security Agency has to use signal intelligence.
Bush , the National Security Agency, in an attempt to thwart terrorism, had been tapping phone calls made to persons outside the country, without obtaining warrants from the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court , a secret court created for that purpose under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act FISA.
One such surveillance program, authorized by the U. Army th Military Intelligence Brigade. NSA relayed telephone including cell phone conversations obtained from ground, airborne, and satellite monitoring stations to various U.
Conversations of citizens of the U. Proponents of the surveillance program claim that the President has executive authority to order such action, arguing that laws such as FISA are overridden by the President's Constitutional powers. Rumsfeld deprecates this view. Bush , against the George W. In that case the agency has to ask the telecom companies for the record, which will only be kept for six months.
NSA was reported in to use its computing capability to analyze "transactional" data that it regularly acquires from other government agencies, which gather it under their own jurisdictional authorities. As part of this effort, NSA now monitors huge volumes of records of domestic email data, web addresses from Internet searches, bank transfers, credit-card transactions, travel records, and telephone data, according to current and former intelligence officials interviewed by The Wall Street Journal.
The sender, recipient, and subject line of emails can be included, but the content of the messages or of phone calls are not. A advisory group for the Obama administration, seeking to reform NSA spying programs following the revelations of documents released by Edward J. Law enforcement agents were directed to conceal how the investigations began and recreate an apparently legal investigative trail by re-obtaining the same evidence by other means.
The Justice Department then took action to correct the issues and bring the program into compliance with existing laws. Polls conducted in June found divided results among Americans regarding NSA's secret data collection. On April 25, , the NSA obtained a court order requiring Verizon 's Business Network Services to provide metadata on all calls in its system to the NSA "on an ongoing daily basis" for a three-month period, as reported by The Guardian on June 6, This information includes "the numbers of both parties on a call The order relies on the so-called "business records" provision of the Patriot Act.
In August , following the Snowden leaks, new details about the NSA's data mining activity were revealed. Reportedly, the majority of emails into or out of the United States are captured at "selected communications links" and automatically analyzed for keywords or other "selectors". Emails that do not match are deleted.
The utility of such a massive metadata collection in preventing terrorist attacks is disputed. Many studies reveal the dragnet like system to be ineffective. One such report, released by the New America Foundation concluded that after an analysis of terrorism cases, the NSA "had no discernible impact on preventing acts of terrorism. Defenders of the program said that while metadata alone can't provide all the information necessary to prevent an attack, it assures the ability to "connect the dots"  between suspect foreign numbers and domestic numbers with a speed only the NSA's software is capable of.
One benefit of this is quickly being able to determine the difference between suspicious activity and real threats. Alexander mentioned at the annual Cybersecurity Summit in , that metadata analysis of domestic phone call records after the Boston Marathon bombing helped determine that rumors of a follow-up attack in New York were baseless. In addition to doubts about its effectiveness, many people argue that the collection of metadata is an unconstitutional invasion of privacy.
As of [update] , the collection process remains legal and grounded in the ruling from Smith v. A prominent opponent of the data collection and its legality is U. District Judge Richard J. Leon , who issued a report in  in which he stated: Surely, such a program infringes on 'that degree of privacy' that the founders enshrined in the Fourth Amendment".
As of May 7, , the U. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled that the interpretation of Section of the Patriot Act was wrong and that the NSA program that has been collecting Americans' phone records in bulk is illegal. This ruling "is the first time a higher-level court in the regular judicial system has reviewed the N.
Under the Upstream program, the NSA paid telecommunications companies between 9 and 95 million dollars in order to collect data from them. In a declassified document it was revealed that 17, phone lines were on an improperly permitted "alert list" from to in breach of compliance, which tagged these phone lines for daily monitoring.
Domestically, the NSA has been proven to collect and store metadata records of phone calls,  including over million US Verizon subscribers ,  as well as intercept vast amounts of communications via the internet Upstream.
Federal agents are then instructed to "recreate" the investigative trail via parallel construction.
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History of NSA Spying Information since (See EFF's full timeline of that have confirmed much of what was reported in and and then some. The NSA is authorized to collect certain data from telecom companies decided that the appropriate course of action was to delete all CDRs. temporary asylum in Russia, faces espionage charges over his actions. GCHQ and NSA eavesdropping on Italian phone calls and internet traffic The magazine said it had seen leaked NSA documents showing that the.