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It begins with white-spot lesions in the upper primary incisors along the margin of the gingiva. If the disease continues, caries can progress, leading to complete destruction of the crown. The main risk factors in the development of ECC can be categorized as microbiological, dietary, and environmental risk factors.

Even though it is largely a preventable condition, ECC remains one of the most common childhood diseases. The major contributing factors for the for the high prevalence of ECC are improper feeding practices, familial socioeconomic background, lack of parental education, and lack of access to dental care.

Oral health plays an important role in children to maintain the oral functions and is required for eating, speech development, and a positive self-image. The review will focus on the prevalence , risk factors , and preventive strategies and the management of ECC. Prevalence and risk factors for trachoma in Sarlahi district, Nepal. To estimate the prevalence of trachoma in preschool children in Sarlahi district, Nepal, and to identify risk factors for the disease.

A stratified random sample of 40 wards was selected for participation in a trachoma survey. A total of children were selected and The prevalence of active trachoma was Cicatricial trachoma was not seen in this age group.

Three year old children had the highest prevalence of follicular Males and females had similar prevalence rates. Wards without any tube wells were at higher risk than those with one or more tube wells.

Lower rates of trachoma were seen in families who lived in cement houses, had fewer people per room, more servants, more household goods, animals, and land. Hence, less access to water, crowding and lower socioeconomic status were risk factors for trachoma. Although follicular trachoma is prevalent , intense inflammatory trachoma is relatively rare and scarring was not observed in this preschool population.

Hence, this population may not be at high risk for repeat infections leading to blindness in adulthood. Prevalence , incidence and risk factors of heifer mastitis. Traditionally heifers, as calves and as primiparae, have been thought of as a group as free of mastitis.

Without appreciable lacteal secretion, there is reduced nutrient fluid available to support growth of intramammary pathogens. Contagious mastitis is primarily transmitted at milking time and the milking process affects the patency of the teat orifice which can increase the risk of development of environmental mastitis. Logically therefore prepartum heifers should be free of intramammary infections.

During the last 20 years there have been numerous investigations describing the nature of mastitis in heifers and thus the dogma that heifers are free of this disease has been challenged.

The purpose of this manuscript is to review that literature describing heifer intramammary infections that cause both subclinical and clinical disease. Mammary quarter infection prevalence ranges between Generally, the pathogens that cause mastitis in heifers are the same as those that cause infections in the older cows.

In all but one study reviewed, coagulase-negative staphylococci CNS are the most prevalent cause of subclinical intramammary infections in heifers. Coagulase-positive staphylococci CPS in some studies are the second most prevalent pathogens, while in other studies the environmental mastitis pathogens are more prevalent. The risk factors for subclinical mastitis appear to be season, herd location, and trimester of pregnancy; all suggesting that management can have an impact in control of this disease prepartum.

With respect to clinical mastitis, the most prevalent mastitis pathogen has been reported to be CNS in one study and CPS, or environmental mastitis pathogens, in other studies. The heifer is most at risk for clinical mastitis during the periparturient period. Risk factors found are related to diet, mammary gland factors such as edema and leaking of milk, and factors associated with the change in.

Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: The increasing prevalence of dyslipidemia has become a worldwide public health problem, and the prevalence varies widely according to socioeconomic, cultural and ethnic characteristics. Chongqing has experienced rapid economic development and is now the economic center of Southwestern China.

There are scant data on serum lipid profile of residents in Chongqing, the largest municipality directly under the Central Government in China. Among the patients with dyslipidemia, The peak prevalence of dyslipidemia in men was between 30 and 39 years Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that dyslipidemia was associated with age, education level, physical activity, obesity and central obesity for both men and women.

In conclusion, the results indicated dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are very common in Chongqing. To prevent dyslipidemia, it is essential to conduct appropriate intervention programs aimed at risk factor reduction and implement routine screening programs for blood lipid levels in Chongqing, China. To measure the prevalence and evaluate the risk factors of anemia.

Cross sectional populational based study of the urban area of Criciuma town, in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. The study population was a probabilistic sample of children aged under three years. The prevalence of anemia found in the sample was The prevalence of anemia increases with age up to 18 months-old and then decreases. It is less prevalent in families where the father has a higher education level and where there is a higher total family income.

The prevalence of anemia is higher among children living in unfinished and overcrowded houses, where the toilet is not equipped with flush, and among children who have two or more older brothers. It is also higher among teenager mothers prevalence of anemia is lower among women who had 5 to 9 prenatal visits during pregnancy. Low weight at birth was associated with iron deficiency. Hospitalizations in the last 12 months were not associated with the disease.

In the hierarchical multivariate analysis children age, family income, and crowded house were the only significant variables. Reproductive health history, health service visits, birth weight, breast-feeding, anthropometry, and morbidity did not characterize a risk factor of anemia in the multivariate analysis. The study makes it evident that social inequality is a strong determinant of anemia. The risk imposed by anemia to children in regard to their health and intellectual development requires immediate action.

Anemia-- prevalence and risk factors in pregnancy. To assess the prevalence of decreased iron stores and anemia in pregnant women. To determine whether the risk factors: A longitudinal study was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics, University Hospital of Zurich to establish the risk factors and prevalence of the decreased iron stores and anemia in early pregnancy. In order to determine the hematological parameters and ferritin levels, venous blood samples of singleton pregnancies between 16 and 20 pregnancy weeks were collected.

According to hemoglobin and iron status, the patients were divided into four groups: The determinants socio-demographic background, age, BMI and parity were explored using multiple logistic regression analysis.

In our study population with low parity, the prevalence of abnormal hemoglobin and abnormal iron status was Published by Elsevier B. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hypertension in Hemophilia. Hypertension is a major risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage. We therefore investigated the prevalence , treatment and control of hypertension in adult patients with hemophilia PWH. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension was Of treated hypertensive PWH, only Recurrent headache is a common problem in school children.

Evaluation generally leads to the diagnosis of a primary headache syndrome migraine or tension-type headache. This review is addressed to the question whether headaches in school children are becoming more common and, if so, what risk factors are associated with the rise in frequency. Articles on secondary types of headache were excluded.

Headaches are becoming more common among school children. Studies from Scandinavia reveal increasing prevalence in age groups from 8 years of age and upward. Various studies have identified the following risk factors for headache or for its chronification up to 5.

Headaches are becoming more common among children and adolescents. They are often associated with other physical and emotional complaints. Prevalence and risk factors for voice problems among telemarketers. To investigate whether there is an increased prevalence of voice problems among telemarketers compared with the general population and if these voice problems affect productivity and are associated with the presence of known risk factors for voice problems.

One outbound telemarketing firm, 3 reservations firms, 1 messaging firm, 1 survey research firm, and 1 community college. Random and cluster sampling identified employees of the 6 firms; employees completed the survey. A convenience sample of community college students similar in age, sex, education level, and smoking prevalence served as a control group.

Demographic, vocational, personality, and biological risk factors for voice problems; symptoms of vocal attrition; and effects of symptoms on work. Telemarketers were twice as likely to report 1 or more symptoms of vocal attrition compared with controls after adjusting for age, sex, and smoking status P prevalence of voice problems than the control group. These problems affect productivity and are associated with modifiable risk factors.

Evaluation of occupational voice disorders must encompass all of the determinants of health status, and treatment must focus on modifiable risk factors , not just the reduction of occupational vocal load. Prevalence and risk factors for tinea pedis in Israeli soldiers. Tinea pedis is a common infection in soldiers.

However, prevalence and risk factors for tinea pedis in soldiers were investigated in only a few studies. To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for tinea pedis in Israeli soldiers. A cross-sectional study including interviews, clinical skin examination and mycological tests was performed in Israeli soldiers. The presence of tinea pedis was assessed using the Athlete's Foot Severity Index AFSI , a scoring system that was developed in order to evaluate the presence and severity of tinea pedis.

Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square or Fisher's exact test for dichotomous variables as needed , or t-tests for continuous variables. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses of dichotomous variables.

Two hundred and twenty-three soldiers were included in the study: Mean age was Clinical point prevalence was Mycological point prevalence was Further analyses were performed using the clinical point prevalence. Univariate analyses demonstrated that the prevalence of tinea pedis varied with the setting of military training basic training: A multivariate analysis demonstrated that tinea pedis was associated with the setting of the military training OR 1.

Tinea pedis is highly prevalent in Israeli soldiers. Association of tinea pedis with the setting. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all population-based studies in general populations or individuals with diabetes who had ascertained DR from retinal photographs.

Pooled prevalence estimates were directly age-standardized to the World Diabetes Population aged 20—79 years. The overall prevalence was All DR prevalence end points increased with diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure levels and were higher in people with type 1 compared with type 2 diabetes.

Longer diabetes duration and poorer glycemic and blood pressure control are strongly associated with DR. These data highlight the substantial worldwide public health burden of DR and the importance of modifiable risk factors in its occurrence. This study is limited by data pooled from studies at different time points, with different methodologies and population characteristics. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy.

To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy DR and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy VTDR among people with diabetes. A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. Pooled prevalence estimates were directly age-standardized to the World Diabetes Population aged years.

A total of 35 studies provided data from 22, individuals with diabetes. All DR prevalence end points increased with diabetes duration, hemoglobin A 1c , and blood pressure levels and were higher in people with type 1 compared with type 2 diabetes.

There are approximately 93 million people with DR, 17 million with proliferative DR, 21 million with diabetic macular edema, and 28 million with VTDR worldwide. Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Risk factors include consumption of undercooked meat, raw vegetables, and unfiltered water.

This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia, using an EcoHealth approach, combined with geographic information system GIS.

A total of participants were randomly selected from seven districts. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was Of those who were seropositive, When researching diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, where animal hosts, human lifestyle, and environmental factors are involved in transmission, an EcoHealth method is essential to ensure a fully collaborative approach to developing interventions to reduce the risk of transmission in high- risk populations.

This manuscript examined the prevalence and extrinsic risk factors for dental erosion DE in early and middle adolescents in Pasto, Colombia. Dental erosion was evaluated in a random sample of individuals aged years attending three primary and high schools in this cross-sectional study.

Clinical dental assessment for DE was done using O'Sullivan index. Data on general sociodemographic variables and extrinsic risks factors were obtained. Descriptive and univariate binary logistic regression analyses were performed. Dental erosion was observed in The univariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that frequency of drinking natural fruit juices OR 2. The results suggest that DE is a prevalent condition in adolescents living in a city in southern Colombia.

The transition from early to middle adolescence implies new bio-psychosocial changes, which increase the risk for DE. To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for reproductive tract infections among men and women in a rural community in Bangladesh. In the Matlab area a systematic sample of married non-pregnant women aged years was drawn from a comprehensive household registration system for married women. A systematic sample of married and unmarried men in the same age group was drawn from a census-derived demographic surveillance list.

Private interviews were conducted with women in a clinic, and cervical, vaginal, urinary and serological samples were collected. Urine and blood specimens were obtained from men who were interviewed at home. The prevalence of bacterial and viral reproductive tract infections was low to moderate. No cases of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection were found.

However, among men there was a high level of reported risk behaviour and a low level of protection against infection. A low prevalence of reproductive tract infections, coupled with a high level of reported risk behaviour, indicated a need for primary programmes that would prevent an increase in the incidence of reproductive tract infections, sexually transmitted infections and HIV infection.

Prevalence and risk factors for scrub typhus in South India. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of scrub typhus in Tamil Nadu, South India.

We performed a clustered seroprevalence study of the areas around Vellore. All participants completed a risk factor survey, with seropositive and seronegative participants acting as cases and controls, respectively, in a risk factor analysis. After univariate analysis, variables found to be significant underwent multivariate analysis.

Of people participating in this study, Overall, scrub typhus is much more common than previously thought. Previously described individual environmental and habitual risk factors seem to have less importance in South India, perhaps because of the overall scrub typhus-conducive nature of the environment in this region. The routine medical check-up provides a good opportunity for screening workers early for cardiovascular risk factors.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the Spanish working population. The study included working people mean age Cardiovascular disease had been diagnosed previously in 0.

Routine check-up showed that The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the Spanish working population is high, particularly in males and in certain types of employment. To investigate the prevalence , related risk factors , and survival of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in a Mexican population. We conducted a cross-sectional study at Medica Sur Hospital in Mexico City with approval of the local research ethics committee.

We found cases by reviewing all clinical records of in-patients between October and January who had been diagnosed with malignant liver tumors. Clinical characteristics and comorbidities were obtained to evaluate the probable risk factors and the Charlson index. The cases were staged based on the TNM staging system for bile duct tumors used by the American Joint Committee on Cancer and median patient survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

We reviewed cases of hepatic cancer. Amongst these, hepatocellular carcinomas represented The median age of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was 63 years, and most of them presented with cholestasis and intrahepatic biliary ductal dilation.

Median survival was days among patients with advanced stage tumors 25thth interquartile range, days. No correlation was found between the presence of comorbidities defined by the Charlson index, and survival. We evaluated the presence of definite and probable risk factors for the development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, that is, smoking, alcohol consumption, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We found an overall prevalence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma of 7.

Smoking and primary sclerosing cholangitis were the positive risk factors for its development in this population. To investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and associated risk factors. The study is a cross-sectional and descriptive study. A questionnaire was conducted with a total of pregnant women about their urinary incontinence complaints between April and December Stress urinary incontinence was the most common type of incontinence during pregnancy.

Among women reporting UI, Factors significantly associated with urinary incontinence included age group, gestational age, parity, previous urinary incontinence, constipation, mode of delivery at last childbirth, previous urinary tract infection, body mass index during pregnancy. As a result of this study, urinary incontinence is a common condition during pregnancy. Results would help the design of more intensive training programs to prevent incontinence during pregnancy by increasing the awareness about urinary incontinence of healthcare staff engaging in the care of pregnant women.

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus: An epidemiological survey, accompanied by a serological analysis,was conducted on samples taken from Lebanese goat herds in order to determine the prevalence of infection with the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus CAEV in Lebanon.

The results of the survey provided information on various livestock production, animal health and herd management factors. Serum samplesfrom goats, including the local breeds Baladi and Damascene and imported breeds Alpine and Saneen , were taken from 60 farms distributed throughout Lebanon and tested for the presence of anti-CAEV antibodies.

The data obtained were analysed using a statistical model to assess CAEV infection risk factors in Lebanon. In total, samples proved to be positive, representing a prevalence in selected individuals of The indigenous breeds were more resistant and tolerant of CAEV than the imported breeds. This study confirms the presence of CAEV in Lebanese goat herds and identifies the different livestock production practices likely to favour the rapid spread of the virus.

Sarcoidosis in an Italian province. Prevalence and environmental risk factors. Background and aim Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous inflammatory disease whose causes are still unknown and for which epidemiological data are often discordant. The aim of our study is to investigate prevalence and spatial distribution of cases, and identify environmental exposures associated with sarcoidosis in an Italian province. Methods After georeferentiation of cases, the area under study was subdivided with respect to Municipality and Health Districts and to the altitude in order to identify zonal differences in prevalence.

The bioaccumulation levels of 12 metals in lichen tissues were analyzed, in order to determine sources of air pollution. Finally, the analysis of the correlation between metals and between pickup stations was performed. Results patients were identified The mean prevalence was 49 per However, we observed very heterogeneous prevalence in the area under study. The correlations among metals revealed different deposition patterns in lowland area respect to hilly and mountain areas.

Conclusions The study highlights a high prevalence of sarcoidosis cases, characterized by a very inhomogeneous and patchy distribution with phenomena of local aggregation. Moreover, the bioaccumulation analysis was an effective method to identify the mineral particles that mostly contribute to air pollution in the different areas, but it was not sufficient to establish a clear correlation between the onset of sarcoidosis and environmental risk factors.

Though prohibited by law, dowry is widely practised, and often contributes to severe injuries and even death of young brides. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors for dowry demand and dowry harassment and its psychosocial correlates across different social strata in India, and also by husband and mother-in-law characteristics.

In a cross-sectional survey of women in rural, urban and urban non-slum sites across India conducted in , dowry demand was found to be significantly higher p prevalence of dowry harassment among this group of women was Another significant risk factor for dowry-related harassment was mother-in law's status in the family.

Interventions related to modifiable risk factors , such as increased social support at the community level, should help reduce dowry harassment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels.

Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease primary prevention.

The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention. Prevalence and risk factors of frailty among home care clients. Frailty is a common problem among older people and it is associated with an increased risk of death and long-term institutional care.

Early identification of frailty is necessary to prevent a further decline in the health status of home care clients. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of frailty and associated factors among year-old or older home care clients. The study participants were year-old or older home care clients living in three cities in Eastern and Central Finland. Frailty is a prevalent problem among home care clients. The risk of malnutrition or malnourishment and a lower level of education increase the risk of frailty.

Screening for frailty should be done to detect the most vulnerable older people for further intervention to prevent adverse health problems. Prevalence and risk factors of dental erosion in American children.

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of dental erosion in children aged years old and 12 years old. Questionnaires were given to the subjects to obtain socio-demographic, oral health behaviors at home, and access to dental care. Dental erosion was analyzed and risk factors were assessed using Chi-Square and logistic regression analysis.

Family income OR 3. Dental erosion is a relatively common problem among the children in this study and it is seen as a multi-factorial process. Helicobacter pylori infection in Ontario: Helicobacter pylori has been classified by the World Health Organization as a type I carcinogen. Prevalence patterns of the infection are different between developing and developed countries. The present study had two objectives - to estimate the prevalence of H pylori infection in Ontario, and to evaluate the relationship between the infection and various demographic characteristics and selected lifestyle factors.

Ten microlitres of plasma were aliquoted from stored blood of men and women, 50 to 80 years of age, from Ontario. The blood samples belonged to control patients of a colorectal cancer population-based study group.

Serological testing was used to detect H pylori infection; information was obtained on dietary intake and lifestyle habits, as well as past and present medical history, education, income, number of siblings, ethnicity and place of birth. The overall weighted seroprevalence of H pylori was Seroprevalence of the infection increased significantly with age and number of siblings.

Increased risk was also associated with being nonwhite, being born outside of Canada and immigrating at 20 years of age or older. An inverse association with seroprevalence was found for education and alcohol consumption. The prevalence of H pylori infection in Ontario is comparable with that of other developed countries. Age, sex, number of siblings, ethnicity, place of birth and age at immigration are among the factors associated with H pylori infection.

Prevalence and risk factors for dysphagia: Dysphagia is considered an alarm symptom but detailed population-based data on dysphagia are lacking. We aimed to estimate in a representative USA Caucasian population, the prevalence of dysphagia and potential risk factors. Dysphagia was measured by one validated question 'In the last year, how often have you had difficulty swallowing a feeling that food sticks in your throat or chest? The associations of reported frequency of dysphagia with potential risk factors were assessed using logistic regression models.

The sex-specific, age-adjusted US White prevalence for dysphagia experienced at least weekly was 3. Proton pump inhibitor PPI use was significantly associated with frequent 3. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease GERD was the most common diagnosis in those reporting dysphagia on the medical record; other organic explanations were rare and only found in the frequent dysphagia group.

Leg Disorders in Broiler Chickens: Prevalence , Risk Factors and Prevention. Broiler meat chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection.

There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens.

We assessed the walking ability of 51, birds, representing 4. We also obtained information on approximately different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks.

We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird older birds , visit second visit to same flock , bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets.

The welfare implications are profound. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production.

A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required. In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM APA, A random, representative sample of 1, Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.

Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified. Hypocalcemia After Bariatric Surgery: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors.

We aimed to define the prevalence of post-operative hypocalcemia and identify clinical predisposing factors. Retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing bariatric surgery from May to December at Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota was performed. Patients with revision surgeries were excluded. Nine hundred ninety-nine patients fulfilled the criteria above.

Mean serum calcium was 8. The prevalence was 1. Pre-operative renal insufficiency increased the odds of developing hypocalcemia by fold. In our series, hypocalcemia was identified in 3. Patients who are predisposed to developing post-operative hypocalcemia, such as those with pre-operative renal impairment, or post-operative vitamin D deficiency and renal insufficiency, may benefit from increased surveillance and prevention strategies.

Obesity after pediatric liver transplantation: Pediatric obesity has become a significant public health concern. The historical focus in pediatric liver transplant LT has been undernutrition, with limited knowledge regarding obesity. SPLIT, which collects pediatric LT data at 39 centers, was queried for subjects ages 2 to 18 years at follow-up, LT between and , and with at least 1 body mass index measured 1 to 5 years after LT.

Using logistic regression, Hispanic ethnicity odds ratio [OR] 1. These findings suggest a need to broaden standard care to include obesity assessment and intervention in routine pre- and posttransplant care. Prevalence and risk factors for odontoclastic resorptive lesions in cats. To determine prevalence of, and risk factors for, odontoclastic resorptive lesions in cats seen in a private veterinary practice population. Cats were evaluated under anesthesia for odontoclastic resorptive lesions.

Lesions were graded, using a published classification system. Clients completed a standardized survey on signalment, indoor-outdoor status, medications, diet during the past year, number of daily feedings, treat feeding, source of water, and oral hygiene practices. Lesions were most commonly mandibular, and premolars were more often affected. Compared with cats without oral lesions, cats with oral lesions were more likely to be older, female, taking medications, drinking city vs well water, and playing less often with toys.

In addition, cats without oral lesions were more likely to have owners who cleaned their teeth daily or twice a week and to be fed diets with higher magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium contents. Frequency of teeth cleaning was inversely related to the development of odontoclastic resorptive lesions.

Variables significantly associated with oral lesions were age and magnesium content of diet. Older cats should be examined closely for odontoclastic resorptive lesions. Clients should be advised on methods and frequency of teeth cleaning in cats to prevent lesions. Dietary nutrients may play a role in the development of odontoclastic resorptive lesions in cats. The literature on the potential influences of modifiable behavioral CVD risk factors and the physiological CVD risk factors are also….

In this study we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CVS among hemodialysis HD patients in a single center in Sudan, using Doppler ultrasound as a screening tool. The study included prevalent HD patients. Like the Great Wall of China, its major purpose was also to stop invaders. However, that was not its only purpose. The other reason was money: The most famous wall in recent history was the Berlin Wall.

At first, people could still travel between East and West Berlin. However, the Soviet Union wanted to stop this, so in , it built the Berlin Wall. The purpose of this wall was not to stop invaders or get money from taxes.

Look in the next sentence to help you guess the meaning of guards. What do guards do? Writers use pronouns to connect words and ideas within and across sentences. Pronouns make the writing shorter and less repetitive. However, pronouns give the reader extra work to do because the reader has to find the words and ideas that the pronouns refer to.

Some common pronouns are he. When you see a pronoun, ask yourself: What does this pronoun refer to? In the following example, the pronoun is in bold, and the noun it refers to is underlined. The arrow shows the connection. Government officials work at the border. They check all passports.

In the next example, the pronoun is in bold, and the idea it refers to is underlined. The arrow shows that the pronoun refers to the whole idea in the first sentence. There was a long line of trucks and cars at the border crossing.

This delayed the tour bus for 3 hours. Exercise 1 Read the following groups of sentences. Highlight the pronoun in the second sentence in each group. Underline the noun or ideas the pronoun refers to.

Draw an arrow from the pronoun to the underlined items. The first one has been done for you. He examined the photo carefully. Students also study the connectors used in academic texts, helping them learn how to navigate dense college textbooks. The guard at the entrance will ask for it. They are stored on one computer. That is the reason irises are good forms of identification. This made it faster for citizens to come back into the country. Intro Level Low Intermediate Level 1 First edition Second edition Intermediate Level 2 High Intermediate Level 3 Second edition Third edition Strategic Reading helps students develop reading fluency by focusing on reading speed and key skills as they read authentic and adapted texts.

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This frees teachers to focus their feedback on larger issues, like developing ideas and mastering rhetorical modes. Several new and exciting products are expected to come onto the market in the next ten years. One manufacturer is creating voice-controlled TVs. One product that is close to becoming real is a system that automatically controls the lights, heat, and other things in the home. Most paragraphs end with a concluding sentence.

It is usually the last sentence of the paragraph. You can write a concluding sentence in several ways. You can 1 restate the main idea from the topic sentence using different words. It is important to remember that a good concluding sentence does not introduce a new idea.

Example skills from Levels Concluding sentences Punctuation Avoiding run-on sentences Avoiding comma splices Subject-verb agreement Paragraph coherence Parallel structure Paragraph unity Introductory paragraphs Paraphrasing Avoiding repetition Summarizing. Look at this topic sentence for a paragraph about 3D TVs and three different possible concluding sentences for the same paragraph.

The first concluding sentence restates the main idea that 3D TV is relatively new and that it is becoming more popular. The second concluding sentence offers readers a suggestion — that they wait to buy a 3D TV. The third concluding sentence makes a prediction — that in the future, most people will own 3D TVs. Each skill is taught in a contemporary context. Students learn how and when to use the skill. They then immediately apply the skills in four separate exercises and a quiz, helping them to internalize the skill and truly master it.

Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 cambridge. A Useful vocabulary Follow these steps to study words and phrases to use when you write about yourself. Talk about the words in the Vocabulary Pool. Professors in North American colleges and universities expect their students to turn in multiple drafts of their writing. This process approach needs to be taught, and this is where Writers at Work excels. Most series only teach a small amount of surfacelevel editing. Writers at Work helps students learn how to find issues in the content as well as the form of their writing.

This special emphasis on fully developed revision results in better writing and a greater student appreciation of the value of the process. Revising means improving the content and organization of your draft. When you revise, you can add material, delete material, or move material from one place in the composition to another. Use the following editing marks when you revise. Beginning with sentences, students learn to revise and edit their writing and internalize this approach for later college courses.

He added with a smile, though, that his mother did not like his hobby. He is from Veracruz, Mexico,. The largest portion of the chapter is on revision and editing. Students first focus on content, as they add to, cut from, and rearrange their writing. When writing a composition, one common mistake is not developing or explaining the ideas in the body with enough specific, supporting details.

Read the two versions of the paragraph that follow. They are from a student composition. Which one has better specific, supporting details? Be prepared to explain your choice. Version 1 Tomoe has a boyfriend from another culture who speaks two languages. He is in the military. I could tell that she loves him very much because when she talked about him, she seemed very happy.

After she told me about him, she asked me about my boyfriend. When I told her about him, she showed interest in hearing about him. We both have special feelings for our boyfriends.

Students continue by editing their work for a variety of features, including grammar and specific aspects of academic writing. Next, students arrange their ideas using different graphic organizers and write their first draft. Explain them to your partner if you can. Talk to other students. Learn the name of each person that you talk to and which country they come from. Learn one special thing about each person, too. You can ask these questions: Guidelines teaches the most common and important types of writing: Writing from experience, relating reading to experience, responding to argumentative essays, responding to fiction and writing from field research.

The International Story features a generous selection of thought-provoking classic and contemporary short stories from many different countries. Unique to this text is the integration of literary works with detailed guidelines for reading and writing and for crafting an interpretive essay. This practice trains them for the realities of academic courses and prepares them to write.

Extensive Instruction and Practice. New Directions does exactly this, preparing students for the rigor of college coursework. Each chapter includes three core readings spanning several pages, and another 20 pages of additional readings.

Students read for content, and respond using the conventions of academic writing. New Directions teaches them advanced skills such as tone, audience, and figurative language. Gilbert Clear Speech sets the standard of pronunciation instruction. Regardless of their language background, all students benefit from a focus on comprehensibility and contextualized practice — a methodology that author Judy Gilbert has been refining for years.

Contrast 1 Compare the two pictures below. This contrast helps emphasize important words so that they are easy for a listener to notice. One word in the sentence below is emphasized and the other words are de-emphasized. Clear Speech uses exercises developed by Judy Gilbert and tested in classrooms all over the world. The result is that students improve their pronunciation faster and better With the Pronunciation: Focus words In each thought group a short sentence, clause, or phrase , there is only one most important word.

This word is the focus word. You can help your listeners notice the focus word by giving it extra emphasis. To make a strong contrast, the stressed vowel in the focus word must be pronounced with extra clarity. A Stressed syllables 1 Listen.

The letter -a- appears three times in the word below. Notice how the vowel in the second syllable sounds different. The vowel in the second syllable is longer. That is because the second syllable, nan, is the stressed syllable of the word. The vowel sound in the stressed syllable is the clearest and longest vowel in the word, the peak vowel.

B Word stress and vowel length The following rules will help you identify the stressed syllable in English words. Rules for Stress and Vowel Length 1. In every English word of more than one syllable, one syllable is stressed the most. The vowel sound in the stressed syllable is extra long. It is the peak vowel. This highly successful pronunciation text covers the speech sounds of English, as well as common sound-spelling relationships, intonation, and stress.

Pronunciation Pairs Second edition offers a variety of exercises and activities, from minimal pair and listening discrimination tasks to dialogues, games, puzzles, and guided conversations. Each speech sound is presented with a list of high-frequency words that includes the sound as well as common spellings used to represent it. Humorous dialogues include current and useful vocabulary. Hundreds of simple, clear illustrations help students understand the vocabulary and dialogues.

Additional downloadable practice exercises, audio files, and resources are available at. Music of English 1 Listen. Notice which vowel is extra long and extra clear in each sentence. This is the peak vowel in the stressed syllable. What are you studying? Stressed syllables 1 Listen to the dialogue. Circle the stressed syllable in the underlined words. Then you must take good photographs. And you must be good with money! Listen to your recording. Did you make the stressed vowels extra long and extra clear?

Pronunciation Plus helps students improve their pronunciation through a variety of stimulating listening and speaking tasks that address all the important topics in English pronunciation: Many of the tasks are done with a partner or in small groups, giving students the opportunity to interact with their classmates while practicing their pronunciation. The Music of English activities help students notice and use key aspects of stress and intonation. Unique twists on topics draw students into conversations, and engaging activities guarantee maximum talking time.

The 16 four-page thematic units in each level are divided into two-page lessons, with each lesson encouraging students to express their feelings, ideas, and opinions. Active Listening Second edition is a popular three-level listening series for adult and young-adult learners of English.

Each level offers students 16 engaging, task-based units, each built around a topic, function, or grammatical theme. Grounded in the theory that learners are more successful listeners when they activate their prior knowledge of a topic, the series gives students a frame of reference to make predictions about what they will hear. Through a careful balance of activities, students learn to listen for main ideas, to listen for details, and to listen and make inferences.

It can be used as a main text for listening classes or as a component in speaking or integrated-skills classes. Present Yourself Second edition, now with complementary video for each level, is a presentation skills course for adult and young adult learners of English. This series takes a process approach to giving presentations and offers students an opportunity to develop the life skill of talking about topics to an audience outside the language classroom.

The books can be used as a main text in a presentation skills course, in the context of a general conversation course, or as a component in speaking or integrated-skills classes. Bunting, Randi Reppen, Lawrence J. Clear explanations and examples. Not only vocabulary, also collocations, phrasal verbs and common expressions.

The unique two-page format teaches vocabulary on the left, and offers practice on the right, so students immediately apply what they study. Academic Vocabulary in Use Second edition is the perfect study aid for anyone using English for their academic work. Ideal for students of any discipline, from engineers and social scientists to business students and lawyers, it covers all the key vocabulary found in academic textbooks, articles, lectures and seminars.

The Second edition has been updated to reflect changes in education, technology and communications, includes a selection of new reading passages, and is now in full colour.

In the Know carefully teaches each idiom in context and carefully leads students through three pages of exercises that take them from meaning to use. Instructors can be confident that the expressions represent real English usage. More than high-frequency idioms are introduced in reading selections, dialogues, and activities that help learners incorporate common phrases into their everyday speech. Learners will eagerly follow the light-hearted stories illustrated with cartoons that provide entertaining and instructive visual interest.

Make your words meaningful Enjoy high quality, corpus-informed dictionaries and language learning resources for free. Written especially for learners of English, the definitions are clear and easy to understand. Optimized for smartphones Perfect for looking up definitions and checking pronunciations on the move. Cambridge Dictionary is as easy to use on a mobile phone screen as it is on a tablet or desktop. Always up to date Follow the blog to find out about new words and to get advice on grammar, vocabulary, phrasal verbs and idioms.

Join our Facebook and Twitter communities to get Word of the Day notifications. Working with colleges and universities, education departments and ministries, businesses, and governmental agencies CaMLA delivers language assessments in more than 50 countries around the world. You can also place your order toll free by phone at , by fax at , or by emailing us at CAMLAorders cambridge. Two-task design gives you meaningful results about the written English proficiency of your test takers.

Practice Materials Unique test suite that measures both learner achievement and progress three levels: This publication is not endorsed or approved by ETS. Objective provides the perfect solution for the demands of the modern classroom; short units emphasising progress, motivating students and getting results. The Objective series provides solid language development, lively class discussion and thorough training in exam skills.

Compact offers concise, targeted preparation for the revised Cambridge English: These stimulating, topic-based courses covers every part of the exam in detail, ensuring students are fully equipped to tackle each part of every paper.

Language work is fully integrated with exam preparation in each unit. The Complete series combines the very best in contemporary classroom practice with first-hand knowledge of the challenges students face. For further information please visit cambridge.

This course gradually builds up the skills, language and test techniques that students need to approach IELTS with confidence. It explores the test paper by paper, giving an exam overview as well as looking in detail at the various task types and giving handy test tips for each.

The most thorough and authoritative preparation available for this high stakes exam, it includes language and skills development, with a focus on test-taking strategy, to help students maximise their band-score.

The course provides up to hours of online study divided between Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening 25 hours each for the Academic module. They can be used flexibly as part of one of the following blended learning combinations: Designed to help students achieve exam excellence, Mindset takes you on a journey that can be tailored to your individual requirements. Contains complete samples of the Reading, Listening, Writing and Speaking tests, together with sample answers for candidates to test themselves.

It is suitable for students preparing for Academic or General Training modules. The test is available at two levels: The Trainer books contain six full practice tests, expert guidance, and exam tips.

The first two tests are fully guided, with step-by-step advice on tackling each paper. Answer keys provide clear explanations, including model answers for the Writing papers.

NEW Authentic practice tests are now available for purchase as computer-based tests as well as practice test books. Common Mistakes at First Certificate Writing for Impact covers all aspects of writing, from writing emails and letters to report-writing. The course also focuses on communication skills and provides a progressive syllabus on the process of writing. The Audio CD provides input from real business people, meetings and phone conversations. English is the language used in international business and no skill is more central to professional life than negotiation.

International Negotiations gives learners the essential skills, language and techniques they will need to ensure their negotiations are successful. The Dynamic Presentations DVD includes expert advice from the author and examples from business presentations to illustrate best practice.

The DVD is supported by free online photocopiable worksheets. Intermediate Upper Intermediate Drawing on inspirational advice from leading figures in the world of cross-cultural communication, Communicating Across Cultures covers all types of written and spoken communications and prepares learners to work effectively with colleagues and business partners the world over.

An additional DVD contains six dramatized sequences which can be used as stand-alone or to supplement the course. The episodes include topics such as first meetings, working in an international team, giving feedback, and managing conflict. Business Vocabulary in Use is a must for any teacher or learner of business English. Ideal for self-study, class use and one-to-one lessons, each unit gives clear explanations of new language plus exercises to practise using the language.

The CD-ROMs contain a wealth of interactive practice exercises and games, tests for each unit of the book and much more. By the end of the course, students will be ready to begin preparation for the BEC Preliminary examination early B1 level. Bringing you right up to date with the language you need for business today, the second editions reflect recent developments in technology, global relations and financial practice.

This best-selling course helps students to understand and talk about key concepts in business and economics. This trusted course contains 30 topic-based units covering everything from computer essentials through to programming, web design, job-hunting and future technologies.

This short course helps learners communicate better when socializing, telephoning, presenting, taking part in meetings, and negotiating. With a focus on listening and speaking, this course builds confidence and fluency by encouraging students to analyze tasks and take part in realistic activities.

Providing clear explanations and authentic practice of essential business language, Grammar for Business focuses on both spoken and written grammar to help students improve their communication skills in realistic situations.

Book with Audio CD. This best-selling series offers reference and practice of specialist vocabulary for training and in-service professionals who need English to communicate at work. Written by both subject and ELT experts, the series is informed by the Cambridge English Corpus to ensure relevant language.

This popular short courses series is designed for learners who need to use English in a professional environment such as science, engineering, marketing, human resources and job-hunting, nursing and the media. Written by professionals for professionals, each book combines the best in ELT methodology with real professional practice to help develop the specialist language and communication skills needed by professionals in their daily work.

This award winning course prepares doctors to communicate with patients in a wide range of medical scenarios in English.

Uniquely, students learn not only functional language and medical terminology but also interpersonal skills and non-verbal communication illustrated on the course DVD. DVD worksheets are available online. Through short, manageable units, this course focuses on the everyday language needed by hotel employees. It deals with a range of customer-facing situations, including reception and bar work, and answering the telephone. Instant Academic Skills provides ready-to-teach, photocopiable lessons for busy teachers who want to give their students extra practice in general academic skills.

A photocopiable resource book and Audio CD of speaking activities designed to encourage engaging and natural conversation. Teacher Training Essentials Craig Thaine This book of ready-to-use teacher training workshops can be used with both practising and pre-service teachers. Each session is fully planned and structured, with accompanying photocopiable worksheets. We are delighted to launch this series with Penny Ur and have more exciting authors and titles coming soon!

Inspiration for busy teachers and trainers! The Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers series, now with over fifty handbooks, offers practical ideas and activities as well as insights into current thinking about English Language Teaching.

The clear and concise advice, along with an extensive index, make this an extremely accessible and readable guide that no language teacher should be without. The book is suitable for all teachers, from trainees to the more experienced. Framed in the context of a clear and compelling educational vision, this book contains around easy-to-use activities for the very young learner classroom.

It is ideal for teachers who are looking for ideas and activities to engage their three to six year-old pupils in meaningful and imaginative ways. The introduction addresses the notion and importance of interaction as a component of online, blended and face-to-face courses. Over 75 activities, both synchronous and asynchronous, provide opportunities for strong online interaction.

The book also offers guidance on setting up and managing online interaction and on using the student produced texts for feedback, error correction and assessment. Paperback with Online Resources.

Taking into account both the growing interest and concerns about use of translation in English lessons, it presents effective ways of integrating carefully chosen activities, covering themes such as tools, language skills, language focus and techniques. The practical activities range from using bilingual dictionaries to translating long texts, with a number of tasks drawing on easy-to-use web tools.

Penny Ur This new edition takes into account the changes in approaches to ELT over the last thirty years, containing updated versions of old favorites from Discussions that Work, but also a much greater range of oral fluency activities, from game-like activities to debates and presentations.

The book includes many new activities for younger learners and lower level learners, making is suitable for a wide range of teaching contexts. The book contains a variety of generic, easy-to-use, practical activities as well as a number of ready-made worksheets for specific video clips. Language Learning with Technology Graham Stanley This book is for teachers interested in integrating technology into their classroom practice. Vocabulary Activities Penny Ur Vocabulary Activities is an invaluable resource for new and experienced teachers alike.

Practice Lessons from Nothing Bruce Marsland An invaluable resource for busy teachers everywhere who are looking for easy-to-use activities that do not require extensive facilities or preparation. Teaching Large Multilevel Classes provides practical advice for teachers who work with large, mixed-ability classes.

Teaching Listening Comprehension is about developing listening comprehension skills in the language classroom.

Friederike Klippel This is a practical guide to communication activities in the language classroom, suitable for use with students from elementary to advanced level. Julian Bamford and Richard R. Day Provides classroom activities for teachers with engaging ways to incorporate extensive reading into their classrooms. Learner English Second edition Editors: Holmes and Margaret R. A Holistic Approach introduces teachers to the theory and practice of teaching speaking.

Part I reviews theories, research, and issues related to speaking and the language learner. Part II examines features of speaking and their implications for teaching speaking to English language learners.

Part IV engages readers in new ways to improve speaking activities, plan a speaking program, and assess speaking. A Holistic Approach brings together theoretical and pedagogical perspectives on teaching speaking within a coherent methodological framework, combining understandings derived from several areas of speaking research and instruction. Written in an accessible style, these books carefully integrate theory, data and classroom applications.

Second Language Writing is a highly accessible and authoritative approach to the theory and practice of teaching writing to students of English. Johnson and Paula R. Updated Updated Updatedand and andexpanded expanded expandedto to toinclude include includeadvances advances advancesin in intheory theory theory and and andpractice, practice, practice,Teaching Teaching TeachingPronunciation Pronunciation PronunciationSecond Second SecondEdition Edition Editionisisisaaa comprehensive comprehensive comprehensivetreatment treatment treatmentof of ofpronunciation pronunciation pronunciationpedagogy.

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RIchaRds developments developments developmentsin in inthe the theteaching teaching teachingof of ofpronunciation. Brinton Brinton Janet Janet M. Richards A new and revised edition of the best-selling guide to the issues involved in planning, developing and managing effective language programs. As well as describing and examining a traditional product-focus curriculum perspective, this second edition considers curriculum from the perspective of classroom processes.

Case studies, which are used to exemplify issues and questions — within and at the end of each chapter — allow for reflection and discussion. From Corpus to Classroom summarizes and makes accessible recent work in corpus research, focusing particularly on spoken data.

Paperback with Audio CDs 2. Richards A comprehensive and extensively researched overview of key issues in language teaching today. My Friend Kills Time mixes a range of visual textures and haunting soundscapes to create a cinematic diary of a young man's isolation. Narrative Shorts 2 Saturday March 10, 1: The Black Balloon Director: Benny Safdie, Josh Safdie In New York City, a lone black balloon, once part of a huge balloon bouquet, learns that humans are complicated creatures with extreme highs and lows.

Part Sci-Fi, part children's film. My Friend Kills Time Director: My Friend Kills Time mixes visual textures and haunting soundscapes to create a cinematic diary of a young man's isolation. Lucas Leyva Told from the point of view of a dying shark, Reinaldo Arenas is the story of an unintentional immigrant in Miami.

Jeremiah Zagar, Nathan Caswell A blend of documentary and fiction, Remains is about recollection and fading memories. Combining three years of recorded voice messages with stunning macro photography, the film documents a relationship from its inception to its end. Lily Baldwin A disoriented young woman stumbles upon an empty estate. There are signs of a lush life, but the inhabitants have disappeared. Sea Meadow revamps the thriller with pop mashups and stylized dance tableaux. Shoot the Freak Director: In masked anonymity, the nihilistic teen indulges in drug-induced daydreams of violence and oceanic abandon.

Reinaldo Arenas Saturday March 10, 1: Told from the point of view of a dying shark, 'Reinaldo Arenas' metaphorically captures the current state of the aging Cuban-American exile community, many of whom have still not come to terms with the Communist Revolution that changed their lives forever.

The film culls from various Cuban films and works of literature to create not a singular voice, but a feeling of a particular moment in time. We see snapshots of these memories; we are a fingertip running through hair, a foot plunging into the ocean, a swaying tree branch.

The film is comprised of sound design, years of recorded voice messages, and macro photography. It explores memory by transcribing that which is tactile into that which is visual. The messages become fading imprints and remainders; the rust rather than the iron, the fossil rather than the bone. Sea Meadow Saturday March 10, 1: Through a visceral, visually striking sequence of events, Sea Meadow reinvents the thriller genre using dance, choreographed gesture and pop mashups to investigate the themes of identity, mortality and memory.

A young woman stumbles upon a seemingly empty estate. Hesitantly she enters and wanders its chilling insides: History reveals itself in these poignant flashes. She is in fact a ghost in her own home. Shoot the Freak Saturday March 10, 1: Remaining in masked anonymity, the nihilistic teen indulges in drug-induced daydreams of violence and oceanic abandon.

Weaving the fictional with the documentary and the actual with the virtual, Shoot the Freak is a timely, unsentimental memorialisation of a bygone era. The Black Balloon Saturday March 10, 1: While moving 40 kids, all by himself, across six New York City blocks, a stressed man accidentally loses a bouquet of a hundred balloons.

A lone black balloon in the bunch learns that humans are complicated creatures with extreme highs and lows, but full of life nonetheless. The Black Balloon is in one part a children's film and the other a Sci-Fi.

The Last Fall Saturday March 10, 1: Soul of America Saturday March 10, 1: The Taiwan Oyster Saturday March 10, 1: While the market for professionally crafted online films grows daily, the budgets to create them don't. In this new media landscape, how do production companies continue to produce great work and still run a profitable operation? Much has been discussed about providing amateur filmmakers online voices, but here we flip the script and discuss how professional filmmakers can make the economics of online filmmaking work for them.

From Vice to Vimeo, meet four folks cracking the code on how to deliver online films worth watching. Creative Dir Mary is a creative director working at the intersection Fact Checkers Unit is an award winning web series currently in its second season. Learn the story of how a sundance short film made the unusual journey to a hit web series from the producers including putting together financing, sponsorship, distribution, celebrity cameos and the wild ride of production itself.

Film Festivals as Distributors Saturday March 10, 2: Do festivals represent the future of independent film distribution? Where are the opportunities? What are the risks? This panel will explore emergent models and speculate on ways independent producers and distributors may leverage a robust film festival circuit for commercial exploitation.

With major festivals like Sundance, sxsw and Tribeca already in the game in varying ways, it seems this will be a developing trend. Will smaller regional festivals organize to create a theatrical circuit? Can a festival brand or screening translate into viable, direct revenues for the independent film sector?

Is this what festivals should be doing? This panel explores one of the most compelling new developments in the business of film festivals. Proprietor Ripping Reality Sean Farnel is a consultant specializing Design with the Brain in Mind Saturday March 10, 2: CKO Neurosketch My passion is understanding how the brain General Dir Neurosketch I'm a psychologist and passionate The Announcement Saturday March 10, 2: Instead, he was holding a press conference to make the stunning announcement that he was HIV-positive and would be retiring from basketball immediately.

Many believed this was a death sentence. Magic is proving people wrong, and is truly living and prospering. CatCam Saturday March 10, 2: Lee, an adopted stray cat, routinely disappeared from his North Carolina home for days on end. Engineered to capture continuous photographs, Juergen hoped to discover the mysterious life of his cat. After many unsuccessful attempts, Mr.

Lee returned with the camera intact and photographic evidence of his travels. Intrigued by his findings, Juergen published the photographs on the internet, unaware that his small invention would send shockwaves around the world and alter his life forever. Cutting Loose Saturday March 10, 2: Prison life in the build up to the annual Scottish Prison Service hairdressing competition. Winning the coveted prize is the ultimate goal, but Francis, the current champion has other objectives on his mind.

Documentary Shorts 2 Saturday March 10, 2: Seth Keal When a German engineer creates a tiny camera for his newly adopted stray cat to wear, the photographs reveal more than ever expected. Dustin Guy Defa Unearthed home movies and haunting dubbed voices collide to create a personal portrait of family dysfunction. Josh Gibson This ode to the climbing, trailing, and coiling species Pueraria lobata evokes the agricultural history and mythic textures of the American South. Meaning of Robots Director: Matt Lenski Mike Sullivan's world is overrun by an army of miniature sex robots with no end in sight.

Written in Ink Director: Martin Rath Can one change what has already been written in ink? Family Nightmare Saturday March 10, 2: Unearthed home movies and haunting dubbed voices collide to create a personal portrait of family dysfunction.

Inquire Within Saturday March 10, 2: A hypnotic, apocalyptic film about false choices, vulnerability and faith. Kudzu Vine Saturday March 10, 2: Through images of kudzu-covered forms, photographed in black and white, hand processed 35mm CinemaScope and radiating with the luminance of early cinema, this ode to the climbing, trailing, and coiling species Pueraria lobata evokes the agricultural history and mythic textures of the South, while paying tribute to the human capacity for improvisation.

Meaning of Robots Saturday March 10, 2: The benevolent Mike Sullivan has been shooting a stop-motion robot sex film in his apartment for the last 10 years. Obsessed with constructing the miniature robot porn stars, his apartment now overflows with thousands of them leaving him only tiny paths for him to walk and no place to film his epic. Mentors - Publicity Saturday March 10, 2: Do you need a publicist?

Maybe so, and maybe no. Come get some hands-on information about the modern role of the PR person, and how that impacts filmmakers today. Publicist Paramount Pictures A former biology studies major Written in Ink Saturday March 10, 2: Written in Ink is a documentary about hope. The compelling story of a man trying to regain contact with his sister after 14 years of silence. But can one change what has already been written in ink?

Beautifully shot on 35mm the film has been praised for its ability to extract with sensitivity the most hidden recesses of the human soul and for its distinctive documentary language.

Without the use of interviews and voice-over the film closely follows its protagonist's endeavor and becomes an allegory for the trials of human existence. Hellion Saturday March 10, 2: All hell breaks loose when seven-year-old Petey is left with his hell-raising brothers. But things go from bad to really, really bad when Dad gets home. Knife Saturday March 10, 2: In rural Texas the story chronicles an unnamed man with a broken spirit returning to his family.

Where he's been is unknown. In spite of their warm welcome he can't shake a rising anger. So he must leave them again. This time to return to the land that was once theirs, a land that has been stolen, plundered, and sewn with seeds of greed. The Man decides to lay his stakes down and pits himself against it all. Magpie Saturday March 10, 2: On a trip to reconnect with his estranged and recently engaged daughter, Phillip finds a sex tape of the little girl he used to know.

Spark Saturday March 10, 2: While a boy waits out his father's tryst he is unexpectedly forced to deal with the lady-friend's daughter. Set on a ranch in Bastrop, Texas, Spark uses the environment to explore the internal space of children.

Shot on 16mm over 3 days. Texas Shorts Saturday March 10, 2: Zach Anner, Marshall Rimmer Zach Anner, the freeloading roommate, and Marshall Rimmer, the responsible businessman, eat their morning cereal together. The Gathering Squall Director: Hannah Fidell A teenage girl is forced into adulthood after she is assaulted by a classmate. The Guessing Game Director: Angela Cheng A very short comedy set in a retirement home with senior citizens.

On the morning of his birthday, Emmett asks his fellow residents to guess his age and is surprised by their answers. Kat Candler All hell breaks loose when seven-year-old Petey is left with his hell-raising brothers. Johnston From the rugged cross-timbers of Texas comes a portrait of greed and vengeance. Buh On a trip to reconnect with his estranged and recently engaged daughter, Phillip finds a sex tape of the little girl he used to know. Dinner is going to be awkward.

Annie Silverstein While a boy waits out his father's tryst he is unexpectedly forced to deal with the lady-friend's daughter. Jared Varava The true and historically accurate tale of one tumbleweed that did not tumble. What It's Like Director: Matt Naylor A magazine writer goes to an old folks home to buy mushrooms from one of the elderly residents.

What starts as a bizarre transaction becomes a moment of connection across generations. The Gathering Squall Saturday March 10, 2: On the precipice of adulthood, fourteen-year-old Lisellen Uhlmann is without a man in her life; her father is distant and boys in school ignore her.

When Duncan Baits invites her to hang out with his friends, everything changes, and in an instant everything goes drastically wrong. The viewer is left to wonder in the end whether justice has been served or misplaced passion has created still another victim. The Guessing Game Saturday March 10, 2: A very short comedy set in a retirement home with senior citizens. Saturday March 10, 2: The true and historically accurate tale of one tumbleweed that did not tumble. What It's Like Saturday March 10, 2: What It's Like is a true story.

John - a magazine writer - visits Mastow, a complete stranger living in a retirement home. John has only a room number and a name, both written on the back of a Chinese food menu beside a single, circled word: This is a story about being afraid to get old. It's about the ways in which losing people affects us. It's about talking with people from a different generation. It's also kind of about hallucinogens. Sun Don't Shine Saturday March 10, 2: The film follows Crystal Kate Lyn Sheil and her boyfriend Leo Kentucker Audley on a tense and mysterious road trip through the desolate yet hauntingly beautiful landscape of central Florida.

Tchoupitoulas Saturday March 10, 3: They have used these cameras in video production since they were released and have evolved their gear bags to contain the best and most efficient DSLR gear. This workshop will cover all of the DSLR gear and accessories that they use on location shoots. They travel light, even with local shoots and will talk about all of the necessary gear for shooting efficiently Brother The Bui Brothers I make media; photos and videos Brother The Bui Brothers photographer filmmaker geek Epic Meal Time From the ghettos of Montreal, to the video game In this panel, SU2C will discuss how entertainment brands, celebrities, technology and cutting-edge cancer research can intersect to drive non-profit campaigns into mainstream culture.

Dir of Communications reddit Victoria came to reddit from Talent and a good hairdo alone will only get you so far. What strategies, communication techniques, and tricks can savvy filmmakers and producers utilize to help their films stand out to festival programmers upon submission and to audiences once accepted? Is there more to do than just make the best film possible?

Join us for some straight talk and tough love focused on helping you discover the most creative and effective ways to get noticed by key industry, audiences and critics. Panel will include live pitching from select audience members and analysis by our crackerjack team of filmmakers and tastemakers who will share advice and best practices to ensure you and your film are fully prepared to connect with audiences other than your adoring Nana! Since its inception, digital distribution has promised independent filmmakers direct access to audiences, but has it delivered?

In this panel, three pioneers of digital distribution — Snag Films, Pre Screen, EPIX and Fandor — will explore this question and discuss the ways in which independent filmmakers can bring their films to digital audiences. For filmmakers seeking a frank and open discussion about the best way to approach the digital marketplace whether by working with a distributor or going it alone , this is a not-to-be-missed panel dealing with the next frontier of indie film distribution.

As a filmmaker, the press can be your best friend or your worst nightmare. Learn how to make nice. Or, if you're an aspiring journalist, learn how to make a living.

Girls Against Boys Saturday March 10, 3: Thale Saturday March 10, 4: Nature Calls Saturday March 10, 4: Doug Benson Super High Me, The Benson Interruption brings comics, actors, directors and writers together to talk about new releases and favorite films.

Director Eva Stotz visited interesting people all over the world, whom she found through online host networks, emerging for a limited time in their everyday life. The film introduces a music-loving Tuareg in Mali, a wildlife enthusiast in Tokyo, an ecologist in the Palestinian West Bank, a dancemaniac in Turkey, and a visionary in the US. In doing so, the film explores a thrilling new way of traveling.

Presented with the support of German Films. Jeff Saturday March 10, 4: In Jeffrey Dahmer was arrested in Milwaukee and sentenced to years in prison for killing 17 people and dismembering their bodies. Recollections from Milwaukee Medical Examiner Jeffrey Jentzen, Police Detective Patrick Kennedy, and neighbor Pamela Bass are interwoven with archival footage and everyday scenes from Dahmer's life, working collectively to disassemble the facade of an ordinary man leading an ordinary existence.

Dollhouse Saturday March 10, 4: The break-in quickly moves into a night of frenzy, driven by a series of revelations that will leave lasting marks on each of them, and resulting in an emotional conclusion that they will carry with them.

Annie is a rebellious ten-year-old girl. She lives on the outskirts of town with her father Marvin, who, when not herding goats, mostly sleeps the day away. Virtually devoid of parental guidance, Annie is left to fend for herself and do as she pleases. With no moral compass, she roams the neighboring lands, shoplifting and engaging in general destructive behavior. Her routine is broken one day while playing in the woods; she hears an old woman calling from deep within an abandoned well, asking for help.

Scared and untrusting of the unseen stranger, Annie deliberates on her course of action. Dreams of a Life Saturday March 10, 4: Nearly three years later, her flat was forced into by authorities due to lack of rent payment.

Her skeleton was found surrounded by Christmas presents that she was in the process of wrapping. Her television was still on. Attendees will once again join forces in a brainstorm with the creative team from AllCity but this year will benefit from the knowledge and insights of one of the UK's most successful film distributors. Using a hypothetical brief set by Momentum, the room will be asked to create an alternative marketing strategy to run alongside the main 1 Sheet campaign. From print and online to guerrilla and PR marketing we will discuss, explore and develop ideas that will create a memorable marketing campaign beyond the 1 Sheet.

These ideas will be sketched up during the workshop in real time and critiqued at the end of the session. Chosen ideas will then be mocked up by the AllCity Studio at a later date. The Making of a Webseries Saturday March 10, 5: The Flesh Life follows entrepreneurs Jeffrey and Otto as they attempt to come up with the next big thing in the sex toy industry. Forging the Future of Film Saturday March 10, 5: This trend is gaining traction and is becoming one many filmmakers can creatively take part in to create a deeper experience for their projects.

Learn how the team behind IRON SKY harnessed the film community to the best ends and on multiple levels, putting themselves in direct contact with their audience from the beginning to not only help fund the film, but interact and cultivate a creative flow between filmmaker and audience.

Lights, Camera, Social Action! Saturday March 10, 5: With films such as Food, Inc. But how do you keep the momentum of a movement after the film has run its course? Through the use of traditional and new media, online and mobile technology, we will demonstrate the how-to's of sustaining local, national and global movements that began with your film.

Once upon a time at the movies, the noble everyman triumphed at the end while the shady operator got his comeuppance. It was the natural order of things. Then, in , everything changed. Nowadays, films are overrun with characters afflicted with the scourge of male pattern badness: Our panel of scintillating experts will explore the depths of today's Douchebag Revolution, its staggering economic model, what it means for the future of cinema and the ultimate question: Is High Douchebaggery the new Punk Rock?

Senior editor, culture Slate Dan Kois is a senior editor Vernon, we accept the fact that we had to sacrifice Daylight Savings Saturday March 10, 5: San Francisco musician Goh Nakamura playing himself is at the height of his career. With a national tour on the horizon and one of his songs being featured in a widely-seen TV commercial, Goh has the life he always wanted.

But when an unexpected breakup occurs, a lost and devastated Goh forces himself to leave it all behind and hit the road with his irresponsible cousin to pursue a promising rebound with fellow musician Yea-Ming Chen playing herself.

Mentors - Open Call 2 Saturday March 10, 5: Feeling adrift in the film world and need some valuable one-to-one general advice? This is the session for you; "Open Call" features industry insiders that run the gamut of the film spectrum.

Whether you're seeking advice on production, festivals, distribution or all of the above, sign up now and get the lowdown. Last Call at the Oasis Saturday March 10, 5: In Our Nature Saturday March 10, 5: A portrait of two couples at a crossroads. What was supposed to be a romantic getaway for two young lovers, turns into an uncomfortable confrontation when the young man's estranged father shows up As their collisions mount, the weekend transforms into a major turning point for each of them.

Boom Saturday March 10, 6: A man stumbles upon a horrifying discovery. Can he make it out in time? Burn Spark Saturday March 10, 6: In the future, the basis for our decision making has evolved. Ethan chooses to live his life not like the others. Will his intuition risk destroying all guaranteed happiness? Chance Saturday March 10, 6: A mysterious man drops off a cardboard box. The next morning, a little girl finds a teddy bear contained within the box.

Eventually, the teddy bear transforms the little girl into a troubled teenager who exacts revenge upon her neglectful father. Code Red Saturday March 10, 6: Four nerdy guys buy the hottest video game of the year. When they take it home to play they discover that it is not what they expected. Drawings Saturday March 10, 6: A bubble of ink comes out of a marker on a whiteboard and pops. The popped bubble starts to change and forms a small man.

The man realizes that he is all by himself and becomes lonely. He decides to make himself a friend and picks up the marker. With the marker, he draws a woman. He and the woman fall in love and a heart appears over their heads. Drones Saturday March 10, 6: A depressed working class man escapes the constraints of his utopic society, through the help of a simple object. Throughout the film his depressing everyday routine is shown through his expressions and attitude.

Due to the simple object, the man is able to become himself and may be able to help others. Drum Roll Please Saturday March 10, 6: A human goes throughout his day. He encounters a wolf, hunting and killing it. A bear from the woods breaks into the human's house. After the human discovers the bear, they have a ping-pong battle to the death.

Janitor's Laundry Saturday March 10, 6: Located in a lonely laundrymat, The Janitor's Laundry follows two innocent victims and their unsuccessful escapes from a murderous janitor. Josh Lumsden - 'Guilty' Saturday March 10, 6: Watch as prisoners attempt to escape the mental asylum while Josh Lumsden sings catchy lyrics. Who I Am Saturday March 10, 6: The film shines a spotlight on this student before he went off to college and highlights the steps he took to get where he is today.

Knit-Picky Saturday March 10, 6: Language Saturday March 10, 6: Jason has a Korean foreign exchange student staying in his home. He does not speak Korean and she does not speak English. In the end, they learn to communicate through drawings. Masterpiece Saturday March 10, 6: An artist paints known masterpieces, but is unsatisfied with them all. She grows increasingly irate at her work, before calming down and returning back to basics.

A social revolution has come to Pasadena Memorial High. Mark McNeil's fight for the presidency, against all odds, will attempt to bring unprecedented social reform of thinking that could last a lifetime.

Plasticine Dream Saturday March 10, 6: A man's enchanted creations are interrupted by a mischievous act. The sound of the wind and cracks of thunder are heard as a teen rushes throughout his house gathering supplies. His brother lays on the couch listening to music. They enter into a closet to wait out a tornado. While inside the closet the question arises of what is more important to have when a storm is threatening. One believes that flashlights, food, water, and batteries are more important while the other believes that photo albums and memories are.

The two eventually get into a struggle and one decides to leave the closet to save the past. Silent Night Saturday March 10, 6: Jonathan Munoz Paranormal Elimination Kalen Doyle, Hirsh Elhence There's a note for that. Christian Benavides One son's letter to his father. Daniel Matyas, Brian Broder All around the mulberry bush, the monkey chased the weasel.

The monkey thought 'twas all in fun, then Pop! Rubin In the future, one man fights the system to choose his own love.

Jasmine DePucci A young girl experiences a transformation by an evil spirit contained within the fluffy seams of a teddy bear. Zach Prengler Four nerdy guys buy the hottest video game of the year, but what they bought was not what they expected.

Micah Autry A social issue film that projects the life of the protagonist and how he overcomes constraints of a normal life. Drum Roll Please Director: Alexander Villanueva Opposable thumbs have allowed humans to become the dominant species.

How dominant, you say? Brian Broder A dark thriller exploring the actions of a murderous janitor, who attacks lonely victims at the local laundrymat. Josh Lumsden Josh Lumsden sings and dances while trapped in a mental asylum.

Who I Am Director: This is a video putting a spotlight on this student before he went off to college. Bobby Jorgenson Life socks. Leah Schell Jason and his Korean foreign exchange student struggle to overcome a language barrier. Anele Page An artist struggles to create a masterpiece for a special cause. Samantha Fine, Andrew Fields Romance molded into the shape of a dream. Ty Whittington Ty Whittington, a young artist, takes us through the process of creating an artistic illustration in his own way.

Marcella Jimenez, Susannah Rodrigue The story of a young boys hope for childhood love. Pierce Harvell When a tornado threatens the lives of two brothers, one decides to take the initiative towards survival despite the reservations of his twin.

James Bradford Run fat boy, run! Cole Martin, Josh Willis An anonymous man with skills of inexplicable origin infiltrates the corporate hideout of a shady, but high-ranking businessman. Using fast and fluid tactics, our protagonist is determined to complete his task. The Apparition Saturday March 10, 6: A young man realizes that his house is haunted, then decides to take matters into his own hands. The Bench Saturday March 10, 6: Timothy is a high school student; one day he is asked to write a letter.

He chooses to write a letter to his father. A tale of supense as a young woman finds mysterious notes left for her on a park bench. The Process Saturday March 10, 6: The cameras focus on where the magic happens The Proposal Saturday March 10, 6: In "The Proposal", a young boy has a hope for young love and goes on a quest to prove to his crush that she is the one for him.

Zwischenzug Saturday March 10, 6: An unidentified protagonist approaches a dreary office building. Inside the building sits a high-up business man signing papers. The hero infiltrates the building seamlessly. It is clear that he has had intense training involving tactical weapons and hand-to-hand combat.

When the hero reaches the business man, he flees. The hero pursues the business man. A fist fight ensues as the hero has run out of ammo. Sunset Stories Saturday March 10, 6: May, a high-strung and overly meticulous nurse, must return to Los Angeles to retrieve bone marrow for a transplant. Soon after her trip begins, her world turns upside down when past and present collide and she runs smack into JP, the man she left behind five years ago.

Flustered, May loses the cooler containing the marrow. With only 24 hours remaining, the two embark on an offbeat search through the streets of Los Angeles only to discover that just when you think all is lost you find what you least expected.

friend. L. 5. A: ______ Samantha like talk shows? is. B: ______, she ______ .. .. (Examples: family, friends, college students, roommates/housemates) What are they doing Stories Tales of the Supernatural by Frank Brennan Thriller Double. The Mask () Friends with Benefits () The Fast and the Jungle () The Duchess () The Devil's Double ( ) . Searching for Sugar Man () The Mission () Copycat .. of the Year () The Phantom () The Roommate (/I). families and friends around the world have a happy and safe holiday .. K memory, double-sided disk drive, color graphics monitor French movie. " Sugar Cane Alley" ( KAILUA: Roommate for 3 . MC