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The importance of human milk is well supported with the World Health Organization recommending that all infants should be fed exclusively on human milk from birth to six months of age and continued thereafter with appropriate complementary foods. Not all babies are able to feed at the breast and so expressed milk is needed. Babies who do not receive human milk are more likely to suffer health problems both as newborns and later in life.

Mothers may also want to express milk for their own comfort or to increase supply. We searched for evidence to March 21, and identified 41 trials for inclusion involving participants, with 22 trials involving participants contributing data for analysis. Trials came from many countries and involved mothers of infants in neonatal units and healthy infants at home. The findings did not indicate a clear preference for any one pump type. Mothers reported satisfaction with relaxation and support interventions.

Greater milk volume was expressed when mothers listened to music or had a relaxation protocol , warmed the breast, massaged the breast, pumped frequently with a suitable breast shield size and started pumping milk sooner after birth if the infant was unable to feed at the breast.

Hand expression or a large electric pump provided a higher protein content than a manual pump. Hand expression provided higher sodium and lower potassium compared to pumps. No evidence of difference in energy content was found between methods.

No study asked mothers if they had achieved their own goals for expressing milk. None of the studies examined costs involved with the methods. Of the studies that evaluated pumps or products, 16 out of 30 had support from manufacturers. Not all the studies reported whether important basic supports for mothers were provided such as access to food and fluid, a place to rest near their baby, and the availability of knowledgeable health workers.

What does this mean? The available evidence indicates that effective measures include starting to express milk soon after birth if the infant is unable to feed at the breast, relaxation, breast massage, warming of the breasts, hand expression, and use of low cost pumps.

These may be as effective, or more effective, than large more costly electric pumps for some outcomes. The most suitable method for milk expression may depend on the time since birth, purpose of expression and the individual mother and infant. Publications on breast milk pumping should not be taken to imply that use of a pump is a routine part of breastfeeding, rather, practitioners need to be able to justify the use of a pump for an individual mother prior to making a recommendation on its use.

Low-cost interventions including initiation of milk expression sooner after birth when not feeding at the breast, relaxation, massage, warming the breasts, hand expression and lower cost pumps may be as effective, or more effective, than large electric pumps for some outcomes.

Variation in nutrient content across methods may be relevant to some infants. Small sample sizes, large standard deviations, and the diversity of the interventions argue caution in applying these results beyond the specific method tested in the specific settings.

Independently funded research is needed for more trials on hand expression, relaxation and other techniques that do not have a commercial potential. Breastfeeding is important, however not all infants can feed at the breast and methods of expressing milk need evaluation. To assess acceptability, effectiveness , safety, effect on milk composition, contamination and costs of methods of milk expression.

We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register 21 March , handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings, and contacted experts in the field to seek additional published or unpublished studies. We also examined reference lists of all relevant retrieved papers. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias , extracted data and checked them for accuracy.

This updated review includes 41 trials involving participants, with 22 trials involving participants contributing data for analysis. Eleven trials compared one or more types of pump versus hand expression and 14 studies compared one type of pump versus another type of pump, with three of these studies comparing both hand expression and pump types.

Twenty studies compared a specific protocol or adjunct behaviour including sequential versus simultaneous pumping protocols, pumping frequency, provision of an education and support intervention , relaxation, breast massage, combining hand expression with pumping and a breast cleansing protocol.

Due to heterogeneity in participants, interventions, and outcomes measured or reported, we were unable to pool findings for most of the specified outcomes. It was not possible therefore to produce a 'Summary of findings' table in this update. Most of the included results were derived from single studies. Trials took place in 14 countries under a variety of circumstances and were published from to Sixteen of the 30 trials that evaluated pumps or products had support from the manufacturers.

The risk of bias of the included studies was variable. In this study , self- efficacy was assessed by asking mothers if they agreed or disagreed with the following statement: The study found that mothers who were using the electric pump were more likely to agree with the statement compared to mothers hand expressing, mean difference MD 0.

Mothers who were hand expressing reported that the instructions for expression were clearer compared to the electric pump, MD Descriptive reporting of satisfaction in the other studies varied in the measures used, did not indicate a clear preference for one pump type, although there was satisfaction with some relaxation and support interventions. We found no clinically significant differences between methods related to contamination of the milk that compared any type of pump to hand expression risk ratio RR 1.

The level of maternal breast or nipple pain or damage was similar in comparisons of a large electric pump to hand expression MD 0.

One study examined adverse effects on infants, however as the infants did not all receive their mothers' expressed milk, we have not included the results. The quantity of expressed milk obtained was increased, in some studies by a clinically significant amount, in interventions involving relaxation, music, warmth, massage, initiation of pumping, increased frequency of pumping and suitable breast shield size. Support programmes and simultaneous compared to sequential pumping did not show a difference in milk obtained.

No pump consistently increased the milk volume obtained significantly. In relation to nutrient quality , hand expression or a large electric pump were found to provide higher protein than a manual pump, and hand expression provided higher sodium and lower potassium compared to a large electric pump or a manual pump. Fat content was higher with breast massage when pumping; no evidence of difference was found for energy content between methods.

No consistent effect was found related to prolactin change or effect on oxytocin release with pump type or method. Economic aspects were not reported.

Methods of milk expression for lactating women What is the issue? Why is this important? What evidence did we find? Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing methods at any time after birth. Data collection and analysis: Secondary outcomes The quantity of expressed milk obtained was increased, in some studies by a clinically significant amount, in interventions involving relaxation, music, warmth, massage, initiation of pumping, increased frequency of pumping and suitable breast shield size.

You may also be interested in: Breast milk expression during pregnancy by women with diabetes for improving infant outcomes Medications for increasing milk supply in mothers expressing breastmilk for their hospitalised infants Continuous nasogastric milk feeding versus intermittent bolus milk feeding for premature infants less than grams Formula milk versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants Extra fluids for breastfeeding mothers for increasing milk production.

lactation | Physiology, Pregnancy, & Hormones | concept4web.com

For the current study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Nommsen-Rivers and her colleagues looked at the factors associated with delayed lactation among first-time mothers who gave birth at one California medical center.

Women who were overweight or obese were more likely than thinner women to have a delay; 45 percent and 54 percent, respectively, compared with 31 percent of normal-weight women. Age also appeared to be a factor, as 58 percent of women age 30 and older had a delay in their breast milk coming in, versus 39 percent of younger women. Another factor related to delayed milk production was nipple soreness.

Women who had more than mild soreness in the first few days after giving birth were less likely to have a delay than other women. That soreness, the researchers note, may be an indicator of more-effective early breastfeeding, which would encourage full milk production. It is not clear why relatively older age and heavier weight in the mother would be associated with a higher risk of delayed lactation, according to Nommsen-Rivers. Problems in sugar metabolism could be a factor in the higher risk of delays in full breast-milk production, they speculate.

Whatever the underlying mechanisms for the findings, Nommsen-Rivers said that the bottom line for women is to seek help for any early breastfeeding difficulties. She suggested that during pregnancy, women try to see a provider who has an affiliation with a lactation consultant. A home visit from the consultant in the first couple days after a woman gives birth can help identify and address any breastfeeding difficulties. Women who feel their milk has not come in within 72 hours should call their pediatrician, Nommsen-Rivers said.

I breast fed both of my children and believe in breastfeeding very strongly. I want to relactate and feed my grandson while I am caring for him. I began the process about 3 months ago using Lenore's menopausal protocol. I am now getting white pearl drops from both breasts but am wondering how much volume I can expect? Has anyone post-menopausal had experience re-lactating after so many years and what kind of quantity can I expect to produce?

Join Date Jun Posts 10, Relactating after menopause Congratulations! I don't think that there is any way to know ahead of time how milk production is going to go. It sounds as if the protocol you are following is working, albeit slowly, but it is too early to tell what kind of volume there will be.

It is just not knowable how a body that has not just given birth is going to respond. And of course even if the body HAS just given birth, and is pretty much compelled to start producing milk, hormonally, even then, milk production 'volume' varies greatly from mother to mother.

Is your daughter breastfeeding? One option to consider would be to use an at the breast supplementer for feeding baby his mothers milk while you are working on inducing lactation. Of course, if needed, this can be used to feed baby donated breastmilk or formula as well.

Join Date Feb Posts 1. Relactating after menopause Is it true you can lactate after the age of 60? I have just started pumping and taking Fenugreek and Blessed Thistle. How long will it take to start pumping milk? Join Date May Posts 24, Relactating after menopause It is theoretically true, though there's little research about it and as far as I know, not too many people have tried it.

Therefore, the "how long will it take? It can be expected to vary greatly depending on the individual, her pumping regimen, and her response to pumping. Join Date Mar Posts 4. Relactating after menopause I am also a 54 year old trying to relactate - unfortunately not due to any grandchildren on the horizon, but because one of my adult children is having a bad, prolonged flare of crohn's disease and I believe breastmilk may ameliorate his symptoms.

I didn't take any hormones as they disagree with me. So I have gone straight to pumping and am getting tiny droplets of milk after 2 weeks of pumping. I have just added some breast massage and noticed that my breasts are tender - I'm hoping that signifies changes happening. I would love to hear how other older women are going with their re-lactation.

Or, if anyone has used breastmilk to relieve someone's ill health. Relactating after menopause Interesting article on human milk for adults with cancer: We DO know breastmilk is a very complete and important food in baby hood and young childhood.

Lactation: Lactation, secretion and yielding of milk by females after giving birth. The milk is produced by the mammary glands, which are contained within the breasts. Pituitary hormones play a central role in lactation. Learn more about the biology and mechanism of lactation. About Star Tribune Workplace. Star Tribune Workplace is the top choice for jobseekers looking for jobs in Minneapolis, St. Paul and Minnesota. Thousands of Jobs covering many categories by top employers and all within your geographical reach. Watch Lactating hand expression women on concept4web.com, the best hardcore porn site. Pornhub is home to the widest selection of free Big Tits sex videos full of the hottest pornstars. If you're craving big boobs XXX movies you'll find them here.